Crop Encyclopedia

Select the crop and the attribute of interest to find the associated data
   OR,

Search crops by keywords OR,

Alphabatically | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |
 
Chromosome Number: 56
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Urticales
Family
:
Moraceae
Genus
:
Artocarpus
 

Jackfruit is popularly known as the poor man's food in the eastern and southern parts of India. A rich source of vitamin A, C, and minerals, it also supplies carbohydrates. Tender jackfruits are popularly used as vegetable. The skin of the fruit and its leaves are excellent cattle feed. Its timber is valued for furniture making since it is rarely attacked by white ants. The latex from the bark contains resin. Pickles and dehydrated leather are its preserved delicacies. Canning of flakes can be done. They can be bottled and served after mixing with honey and sugar. Nectar is prepared from its pulp. The rind rich in pectin, can be used for making jelly. The flakes, seeds, sterile flowers, skin and core contain calcium pectate 4.6, 1.6, 3.7, 3.2 and 2.1% respectively. They are considered as a good sources of pectin.

   
Climate and soil  
Jackfruit can be grown on a wide variety of soils but it grows well in a rich, deep, alluvial and well-drained soil. It can also be grown on open textured or lateritic soil provided sufficient nutrients are available. It is preferred in homesteads, as a shade-tree or as a mixed crop. It grows well in a warm, humid climate up to an elevation of 1,500m. In south India, it performs satisfactorily in arid and warmer plains. However, it cannot tolerate cold and frost.
 
Varieties

Being a cross-pollinated and mostly seed propagated, its innumerable types of fruits differ widely in density of spines, rind, bearing, size, shape, quality and period of maturity. Local selections are named as ‘Gulabi' (rose-scented), ‘Champa' (flavour like that of champak) and ‘Hazar' (bearing a large number of fruits). There are 2 broad groups of cultivated types—soft-fleshed and firm-fleshed. Rudrakshi has common pumello-sized fruits with smooth rind and less spines, whereas Singapore or Ceylon Jack, introduced from Ceylon, is highly precocious. Sometimes it produces light off-season crop between September and December. Muttam Varikka is another important variety producing fruits of 7kg each.

A lot of variability occurs in evergreen forests of the Western Ghats, Gorakhpur, Dewaria (40kg-sized fruits) and Allahabad (small with white, juice and soft pulp) districts of Uttar Pradesh. Some of these types produce small-to-medium-sized fruits with small seeds and thin skin, offering a great potential for the varietal improvement. Jackfruit NJT 1, NJT 2, NJT 3 and NJT 4 collections from Faizabad have large fruits of excellent quality with bulbs having low fibre. They are suitable for table purpose. NJC 1, NJC 2, NJC 3 and NJC 4 have small-to medium-sized fruits with thin rind and soft flesh. They are suitable for culinary purpose. Varikka, Koozha and Navarikka (Pazam Varikka) types are available in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka with maximum density in Wynad Plateau in the Western Ghats.

   
Propagation
Jackfruit is commonly propagated through seeds. Seeds should be sown immediately after extraction since they lose their viability during storage. Soaking seeds in 25ppm NAA for 24hr improves their germination and seedling growth. Air-layering, grafting (inarching and epicotyl) and budding (forkert, chip and patch) are means of its vegetative propagation. At Konkan, it gives a success of 50–90% through epicotyl grafting performed during April–May, with grafts attaining planting size within a year.
   
Cultivation  

Planting

The plants of Jackfruit should be planted in a square system (hexagonal if the soil is less fertile) 12m apart. June–August is ideal time for planting. The tap root system along with plants should not be disturbed while planting. The young plants should be protected from stray goats and cattle. Protective irrigations are necessary initially at 12–15 days intervals depending on soil and climatic conditions. The plants should be trained by removing lower branches.

Manuring and fertilization

Its plants need adequate nutrition for regular and good cropping. Apply 80kg farmyard manure to a tree annually along with chemical fertilizers. For obtaining higher productivity, the following fertiliser schedule is recommended (Table 1).

Nutrient

Age of the plant

1–3 years

4–7 years

7 and above

N (g)

200

400

600

P 2 O 5 (g)

120

240

300

K 2 O (g)

60

120

240

 ( Table 1. Recommended fertilizer schedule for jackfruit)

Source: Improved Cultivation Practices for Horticultural Crops 1997, UAS, Dharwad

   
Harvesting & Postharvest management
Seedling trees start bearing from seventh to eighth year onwards while the grafted ones from third year, when a few fruits may develop. Singapore variety starts yielding from third year of planting. The tree attains its peak bearing stage in about 15–16 years of planting. At this stage, normally a tree bears up to 250 fruits annually with annual fluctuations in yield. The weight of fruits also varies depending on the type. On an average about 40–50 tonnes of fruits/ha could be obtained.
Nutritional Value
 
Usage

Food

 

Jackfruit is usually consumed fresh as a dessert fruit. It can also be made into ice-cream, jam, jelly, chutney or canned with syrup or honey. The ripe fruit may also be dehydrated and made into chips akin to banana chips.

Both the ripe and green fruit are used in cooking – for curries and soups. The unripe fruit is also used a fresh salad. The ripe pulp is prepared into a creamy dessert with coconut milk. The seeds are also edible after boiling or roasting. Roasted dried seeds may also be ground into flour and mixed with wheat flour for baking.

Fermented ripe fruit may be distilled to produce a potent liquor.

Despite the wide use of the fruit, the strong aroma associated with jackfruit may be offensive to the uninitiated. Similarly the latex that oozes from the skin when it is cut open may be an inconvenience to consumers. These, besides the issue of bulkiness, need to be addressed before the jackfruit may be popularised globally.

 

Non-food

 

In India, jackfruit leaves are used as food wrappers or fashioned as plates. The latex is used as a multi-purpose adhesive to mend chinaware and earthernware and to caulk boats.

Timber: Jackwood is an important timber in Sri Lanka and India; some is exported to Europe. The wood is termite proof, fairly resistant to fungal and bacterial decay, seasons without difficulty, resembles mahogany and is superior to teak for furniture, construction, turnery, masts, oars, implements, brush backs and musical instruments.

From the sawdust of jackwood or chips of the heartwood, boiled with alum, there is derived a rich yellow dye commonly used for dyeing silk and the cotton robes of Buddhist priests.

Folk Medicine : The Chinese consider jackfruit pulp and seeds a cooling and nutritious tonic and to be "useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system." The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as an aphrodisiac. The ash of jackfruit leaves, burned with corn and coconut shells, is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers.

The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to artosterone, a compound with marked androgenic action. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma. An extract of the root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea. The bark is made into poultices. Heated leaves are placed on wounds. The wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to produce abortion.

 

Summary of non-food uses of the jackfruit

 

General purposes

Plant Part

Uses

Young leaves

eaten by livestock/animal fodder

Bark

used in making cordage or cloth

Wood particles (sawdust, chips)

yellow dye is derived for dying silk and cotton robes

Latex

serves as birdlime, as household cement for mending china and for caulking boats

Timber

resistant to termite, fungal and bacterial decay, easy to season and takes polish beautifully comparable to mahogany and teak-good for furniture, masts, oars, implements and musical instruments e.g. guitars, ukelele

Root of older trees

highly prized for carving and picture framing

Medicinal purposes

Plant Part

Uses

Pulp and seeds

as cooling and nutritious tonic for use in over-coming alcohol effects, popular with the Chinese community

Seed

seed starch to relieve biliousness, and roasted seeds regarded as an aphrodisiac

Leaves

The ash of leaves when burned with corn and coconut shells, is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers

Bark

Made into poultice

Latex

mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings

Pith

Said to induce abortion

Wood

Has sedative properties

Root

remedy against skin diseases and asthma, its extract is taken in cases of fever and diarrhoea

 
TOP
 
Chromosome Number: 66
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Myrtales
Family
:
Myrtaceae
Genus
:
Syzygium
 
Jamun is indigenous to India. Its tree is tall and ever-green. It is generally grown as avenue or as wind break. It is widely grown from Indo-Gangetic plains in north to Tamil Nadu in south. It is also found in the lower range of the Himalayas and Kumaon hills.The refreshing and curative properties of jamun make it one of the useful medicinal plants of India. Fruits are a good source of iron, used as an effective medicine against diabetes, heart and liver trouble. The seed powder of jamun reduces the quantity of sugar in the urine very quickly.
   
Climate and soil  
Since jamun is a hardy fruit crop, it can be grown under adverse soil and climatic conditions. It thrives well under both tropical and subtropical climates. It requires dry weather at the time of flowering and fruit setting. Early rains are beneficial for better growth, development and ripening of fruit. Young plants are susceptible to frost. The jamun trees can be grown on a wide range of soils—calcareous, saline sodic soils and marshy areas. Deep loam and well-drained soils are ideal. It does not prefer very heavy and light sandy soils.
 
Varieties
There is no improved variety for commercial cultivation. The most common type grown in north India is known as Rajamun. This is large-fruited type having oblong fruits of deep purple colour. A type having large-sized fruits is known as ‘Paras’ in Gujarat. Another type found in Varanasi has no seed. A selection known, as Narendra Jamun 6 has been identified with desirable traits at Faizabad (Uttar Pradesh).
   
Propagation
Jamun is propagated both by seeds and vegetative techniques, the most common being by seeds. The seeds have no dormancy, hence fresh seeds can be sown (within 10–15 days) 4–5cm deep at a distance of 25cm × 15cm. The seeds germinate 10–15 days after sowing. The seedlings become ready for transplanting in spring or next monsoon. Its seeds show polyembrony up to 30–40%, hence nucellar/apomictic seedlings can be used to produce true-to-type plants. Seedling plants bear fruits of variable size and quality. Therefore, vegetative method is desirable for propagation of improved or selected types. Budding is most successful for commercial raising of plants. It is done on one-year-old rootstock having about 10mm thickness. Patch and forkert methods give more than 70% success if performed in March. In low rainfall area, July–August is ideal time.
   
Cultivation  

Planting

Pits of 1m × 1m × 1m size are dug 10m apart for seedling trees and 8m apart for budded plants in a properly cleaned field. Pit digging should be completed before the onset of the monsoon or spring season. They should be filled with a mixture of top soil and well-rotten farmyard manure or compost in a 3:1 ratio. Monsoon season (July–September) is ideal time of planting. But it can also be planted with a good survival rate in spring (February–March) if irrigation facilities are available. About 100–150 plants are required for planting a hectare land.

Training and pruning

Young plants need training for the development of framework. Keep the main stem or trunk clean up to a height of 60–90cm from the ground level by removing the basal branches and sprouts. Jamun plants do not require any pruning except removing diseased, dry and crisscross twigs.

Manuring and fertilization

In pre-bearing period, 20–25kg well-rotten farmyard manure or compost/plant/year should be applied. For bearing trees, this dose is increased up to 50–60kg/plant/year. The ideal time for giving the organic manure is a month before flowering. Grown-up trees should be applied 500g N, 600g P and 300g K/plant/year. This should be spread near the canopy of the plant and mixed in soil by hoeing.

Aftercare

Green manuring can be done during the rainy season. Intercropping karonda or phalsa or seasonal vegetable crops in initial years between the rows or interspaces can be done. Sprouts arising from base of its plants should be removed timely and the plantation should be kept weed-free. Jamun is a cross-pollinated crop hence raising of honey-bees near the plantation is desirable for maximum fruit set and productivity.

Irrigation

Irrigation should be given just after manuring. Young plants require 6–8 irrigations for better growth. In bearing trees, irrigation should be given from September to October for better fruit bud formation and from May to June for better development of fruits. Normally 5–6 irrigations are required.

   
Harvesting & Postharvest management

Seedling trees start bearing at the age of 9–10 years, whereas budded ones take 5–6 years. Flowering starts during March and continues up to April in north Indian conditions. Fruits ripen during June–July or with the onset of rains. It takes about 3–5 months to ripen after full bloom. Fruits change their colour from green to deep red or bluish black. This is a non-climacteric fruit hence it does not ripen after harvesting. Fully ripe fruits are harvested daily by hand-picking or by shaking the branches and collecting the fruits on a polythene sheet. Jamun trees need a number of pickings, since all fruits do not ripen at a time. The average yield of fully-grown budded and seedling trees is 50–70kg and 80–100kg/plant/year.

Jamun fruits are highly perishable. They can be stored only up to 2 days at ambient temperature. Precooled fruits packed in perforated polythene bags can be stored for 3 weeks at 8–10°C and 85–90% humidity. There is no standard practice for grading of fruits. Blemished or bruised fruits must be sorted out before packing. Fruits are normally packed in bamboo baskets and transported to local markets. In the market, fruits are sold on green leaves or on pieces of newspaper. The fruits prepacked in leaf cup covered with perforated polythene bags have little or no damage, during handling. Handling of fruits during transit from market to home is also easier in this container.

Jamun fruits can be processed into excellent quality fermented beverages such as vinegar and cider, and non-fermented ready-to-serve beverages and squashes. A good quality jelly can also be prepared from its fruits. The seeds can be processed into powder which is very useful to cure diabetes.

   
Physiological Disorders
Heavy drop of flowers and fruits have been observed in jamun at various stages. About 50% flowers drop within 3–4 weeks of flowering. It occurs at very young stage during 5–7 weeks of full bloom. The problem of flower and fruit drop can be minimized by spraying of GA3 (60ppm) twice, one at full bloom and other 15 days after fruit set.
TOP
 
Chromosome Number: 72
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Lamiales
Family
:
Lamiaceae
Genus
:
Mentha
 

Japanese mint is an aromatic herb of temperate region. The oil and its principal aroma-compound menthol have cooling and gastro-stimulant properties, for which it is used in pharmaceuticals, food flavour, confectionery, cosmetics, beverages and related industries. In India, it is grown over around 50,000ha land. The area has grown enormously during the last 3 years in tarai districts of Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Punjab and Haryana. India has emerged as a large exporter of its oil and menthol to world market, particularly to the USA.

Japanese mint is a vigorously growing branched, hardy perennial, attaining up to 1m height in rich fertile lands. The herb is covered with soft tomentum all over and bears broadly ovate leaves over terete, violet tinged quadrangular stems. It gives out long, narrow, axillary flowering spikes profusely, containing lilac flowers. Being of hybrid origin, it rarely sets seed. The crop is commercially raised through underground stems called stolons, though suckers given out in rainy season also easily give out roots on planting, producing new plants.

A number of improved varieties—Mas 1, Hybrid 77, EC 41911, Kalka, Gomti, Himalya and Kosi are grown, producing high oil yields. However, Shiwalik is most popular variety amongst farmers, covering nearly total area in our country. It produces compact bushy growth with thick leathery leaves, producing high oil yield. The oil has high menthol content (75–80%). The newly bred culture, Kosi, yields more oil and menthol content than Himalaya and Shiwalik.

Mints favour well-drained, deep, organic, sandy-loam to clay-loam soils of 6–7 pH with copious irrigation. Clayey soils, high pH (> 8.50) and frosty locations are unsuitable. Since it is a shallow-feeder, high water table between 60 and 100cm with efficient drainage is favourable. It is a long day plant, grown as a long duration (240 days) annual crop, growing up to 1,000m elevation in subtropical north India. Annual fluctuation in temperature of 40°C and 0°C with sunshine alround the growing season is ideal; shade is undesirable.

The land is repeatedly ploughed and harrowed to make a fine seed bed, free of all perenniating weed roots. About 25–30 tonnes/ha of farmyard manure together with 25kg of BHC (10%) is applied at land preparation, whereas NPK is added @ 40, 60 and 40kg N, P and K/ha during planting time in February. Seed rate of 250kg/ha of fresh juicy stolons is enough. Planting is done when temperature is around 20°C. About 8–10cm long stolons with 2–4 growing points should be planted, 1–2cm deep in furrows at 40cm × 10cm spacing. They should be dipped in 0.1% Agallol or Captan solution for 2 minutes. These sprout in 10 days. A day temperature of 20°–25°C and light showers favour their rapid growth. Generally, 80kg of N is given in 2 doses. The first dose is given deep in rows 40 days after sprouting, while remaining after taking the first flush.

Zinc deficiency is common in Gangetic plains. Therefore, 20kg of ZnSO 4 should be mixed in the soil at the time of land preparation. Usually, 3 weedings are given before each harvest. The expenditure can be reduced by using wheel hoes or bullock-driven hoes in between the rows in the first crop but high soil moisture makes it unworkable during rainy season. Pre-emergent application of Terbacil of Diuron at 2kg in 100 litres of water or 2.5kg of Delapon or Gramoxone could be given in between rows evenly to control weeds. However, these are contact herbicides and farmers need much more care in choosing efficient spray machine and its fine nozzle. The crop needs 6–9 irrigations during dry season and 2–3 after rains in late September till second harvesting is done.

Mint–maize–potato, mint–early paddy–potato and mint–late paddy–sweet pea are common crop rotations in Uttar Pradesh, whereas mint–maize–rapeseed or mustard or mint–paddy are popular in Punjab.

It is harvested at flowering on dry sunny days. The crop maturity is determined by distillation of crop sample in Clevenger's apparatus. If it gives an average oil content around 0.5% (w/w) in leaves, it is ready for harvesting. This stage is reached in 105–110 days of sprouting for first harvesting and 80–90 days after the first cut is taken for the second crop. The crop is cut 10cm above the ground through sickle and left in the field for 4–6hr for wilting. It loses 50% of its moisture and then chopped into small pieces and distilled in a steam distillation unit. Harvesting on cloudy or rainy day decreases menthol content in its oil significantly. An average of 30 tonnes/ha of herbage yield in 2 cuts is taken in a year, producing 150kg of oil. Higher yields are obtained from a well-managed plantation. The oil, golden-yellow in colour, is a mobile liquid, contains 70–80% menthol. The oil is dried of adhering moisture and stored in aluminium or mild steel containers, filled up to the brim and stored in a dry cool godown.

   
 
TOP
 
Chromosome Number: 26
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Scrophulariales
Family
:
Oleaceae
Genus
:
Jasminum
 
Jasmine is one of the leading traditional flowers of India. Its flowers are used for making garlands, adorning hairs of women, in religious and ceremonial functions, and for producing perfumery oil. Its commercial cultivation is confined to Coimbatore, Madurai, Dindigul, Athoor, Nilakottai, Tirumangalam, Kallupalli and Thiruparankundrum (Tamil Nadu); Bangalore, Ballary, Mysore and Kolar (Karnataka); Pune, Aurangabad and Ahmednagar (Maharashtra); Ahmedabad, Anand and Vadodara (Gujarat); Ambala, Gurgaon and Faridabad (Haryana); Kannauj, Jaunpur and Gazipur (Uttar Pradesh); Delhi; Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Patiala and Amritsar (Punjab); Ranaghat, Kolaghat, Panskura and 24-Parganas (West Bengal); Udaipur, Ajmer, Jaipur and Kota (Rajasthan); Hoja, Jorhat, Alnugarh (Assam). However, largest chunk of areas under jasmine flower production is in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. The annual production of flowers is worth more than Rs 120 million. Apart from internal trade, fresh flowers of jasmine are exported to Malaysia, Singapore and Sri Lanka.
   
Climate and soil  
Jasmine can be grown in a variety of climate and soils. Generally, it prefers mild tropical climate for proper growth and flowering. Mild winter, warm summer, moderate rainfall and sunny days are ideal climatic requirement. Loamy garden soils are best-suited for cultivation of all species and varieties. With liberal application of manure and assured water supply, jasmines can also be grown suitably in sandy soils. In clayey soil, flower production is hampered to a great extent. This type of soil can be improved by adding lime and applying organic manures.
 
Varieties

A number of jasmine species are grown in India. Commercially grown important Jasminum species are J. sambac, J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum and J. multiflorum .Their brief description is given below.

J. sambac

It is commonly known as Arabian jasmine, Tuscan jasmine, Bela, Belphool, Malliage and Mogra. It is the most common species in India. Its flower buds are white with single or multi-whorled petals, used for garland-making, adorning hair, worshipping, decoration and extraction of perfume. The leaves are simple, opposite, almost smooth with prominent lateral veins. It is a bushy weak-stemmed shrub with pubescent branches. Its important varieties are: Motia, Single Mohora, Double Mohora, Khoya, Rai Japanese, Iruvatchi, Madanban, Ramabanam, Suji malliage, Elusuthu malliage, Adukkumalli and Kasthurimalli.

J. grandiflorum

Popularly known as Royal or Spanish jasmine, French or Catalonian jasmine, Chameli, Jahi, Jajimalli, Mallai and Pitchi, is a large shrub in striate branches having pinnate leaves, compound with 7–9 leaflets of equal sizes. Flowers are white, often tinged with purple outside, axillary or terminal and 5 petalled. Large single flowers are delightfully fragrant. Flowers are used in making garlands, decorative bunches or veni . They are suitable for planting in shrubbery, arches and pergolas. Presently concrete is extracted from its flowers. It flowers from March to September. Important clones of this species are: pin type, thrum type, J.G.1 (Bangalore), J.G.2 (Coimbatore), J.G.3 (Lucknow), J.G.4 (Tenkasi White), J.G.5 (Thimmapuram), J.G.6 (Triploid), Surabhi, Co 1 Pitchi and Co 2 Pitchi.

J. auriculatum

Commonly known as Juhi, Jui, Malle, Mokggu, Mullai and Ambur Malliage, it is a scandent shrub having shiny leaves with minute lateral leaflets. Leaves are mostly simple, occasionally trifoliate. The plants produce numerous star-shaped, white scented blooms and are very good as loose flowers. The flowers are borne in pubescent compound many flowered flax cymes. Black type of this species is grown in home gardens. The flowers are commonly used for garlands, adorning hair, worship and decoration. It bears flowers from spring to summer and in rainy season. Its high-yielding varieties are: Co 1 Mullai, Co 2 Mullai, Pari Mullai, Long point, Long Round, Medium Point and Short Round.

J. multiflorum

This type of jasmine is commonly known as Kakada, Kunda, Kundo, Kundphul, Kundamu, and Tundam. This is one of the resistant jasmine, not scented and very ornamental. This species flowers profusely for longest duration beginning from December to August and bears complete white flowers in clusters which are good as loose flowers.

Other important species of floricultural importance are:

J. arborescens

Also known as tree jasmine, Muta, Bela and Nuba Malliage, it is a large shrub or shrubby tree with fragrant, white flowers, which is grown in West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh. It blooms during November–May.

J. calophyllum

Popularly known as Pandal Malli, it is a shrub and bears white flowers round the year. Flowers are highly scented and it is a profuse flowering species. Commonly grown for garden decoration and free from pest and disease attack, it flowers continuously from February to June.

J. flexile

It is a climbing jasmine bearing fragrant white flowers in profusion, widely grown in home compounds for its scented flowers. It produces flowers through out the year but bears flowers in profusion during winter and early spring. It is free from insect pests and diseases.

J. humile

Popularly known as yellow jasmine, Semmaligai and Pellichambell, it is a shurb which bears fragrant yellow flowers, grown in home gardens. The species bears flowers from April to June.

   
Propagation

Jasmine can be propagated by seed or cuttings, layering, budding and grafting. However, commonly used method is by cuttings and layering. Ground layering is the most successful method of layering. Easy means of vegetative propagation is by stem cuttings. High percentage of rooting and increased number of long roots are obtained when cuttings are taken during April–September. The 15cm long shoot tip cuttings having 4 leaves of J. auriculatum, J. grandiflorum and J. sambac and semi-hard wood cuttings of J. multiflorum treated with 4000ppm IBA and planted in vermiculite or sand under mist give best performance in rooting and survival of rooted cuttings. A large number of Jasminum species, can be propagated from stem cuttings under mist in a sand medium with the treatment of 4,000ppm of IBA. J. arborescens , however, is very difficult to root from cuttings, and is multiplied through suckers commonly.

Only a few species of Jasmine set seeds under natural conditions. J. arborescens, J. auriculatum, J. angustifolium , J. calophyllum, J. flexile, J. grandiflorum, J. mesnyi, J. pubescens, J. rigidum, J. suavissinum and certain varieties of J. sambac set seeds. Freshly harvested seeds have higher germination percentage. Their seeds retain viability up to 10 months. High temperature, and humidity hasten germination, whereas saw-dust and sphagnum moss media are good for getting maximum germination.

   
Cultivation  

Planting

Jasmine is perennial in nature.The plants remain in the same spot for many years. They are generally planted during rainy season. Pits of 45cm × 45cm × 45cm size are dug at least one month before planting and exposed to sunlight. A few days before planting, the pits are filled with 2 parts of well-rotten cowdung manure and one part each of fresh earth and coarse sand. In termite-prone areas, dry leaves may be burnt in pits or a handful of BHC may be added to filling mixture. Pits should be irrigated to settle the mixture. Well-rooted, healthy and strong plants are planted in pits (one in each). Soils with proper drainage and irrigation facilities and sunny condition are ideal.

Planting distance plays an important role in flower yield. To get highest yield of flowers/unit area, recommended planting distances of commercially important species are: J. auriculatum , 1.8m × 1.8m; J. grandiflorum , 1.5m × 1.5m or 1.8m × 1.8m; J. multiflorum and J. sambac, 1.2m × 1.2m. Climbing species are spaced to a wider distance which depends on the purpose and choice of the growers.

Pruning

Pruning encourages growth of new healthy shoots and influences flower yield. In J. grandiflorum , pruning in mid-December at 90cm length from the ground retaining 10 shoots and striping out all leaves is most beneficial under Bangalore condition. In J. auriculatum , pruning during December and January encouraged higher flower yield & Nadia (West Bengal), while pruning of this species during January-end is better at Coimbatore. In J. sambac pruning during October-end is beneficial at Bangalore, while J. sambac should be pruned once again after 6 months of first pruning during lean season of flowering at Coimbatore.

Manuring and fertilization

Many commercial growers use only organic manure by mixing one part each of horse and donkey manure and tank silt. The mixture is applied @ 10kg/plant/year. A fertilizer dose of 100g N, 150g P 2 O 5 and 100g K 2 O over a basal dose of 10kg farmyard manure/plant/year is ideal for getting maximum flower yield in J. granidflorum at Bangalore. Further an increase in flower yield may be obtained if Mg (40kg/ha), Zn (10kg/ha) and B (5kg/ha) are applied along with NPK fertilizers. The N dose can be reduced to half (50g/plant/year) if applied as foliar spray in equal doses beginning from first week of February at fortnightly intervals. In J. auriculatum, 120g N, and 240g each of P 2 O 5 and K 2 O/plant/year is recommended; while for J. sambac 90g N, 120g P 2 O 5  and 240g K 2 O/plant/year is most beneficial at Coimbatore. For J. multiflorum, 120g N/plant/year is recommended at Bangalore.

Aftercare

Pinching of new shoots after pruning helps regulate flowering in J. auriculatum and J. grandiflorum which delays onset of flowering. The overall growth of laterals produced after pinching is more which delays the flower bud formation by 14 days in J. auriculatum and 17 days in J. grandiflorum . This delay in flowering of laterals produced after pinching helps to stagger the peak productivity.

Sometimes, in jasmine, water-shoots are produced which grow faster and yield only a few flowers. Removal of such unproductive shoots is supposed to direct the energy towards productive shoots.

Foliar spraying of cycocel (1,000ppm) twice during vegetative stage increases the production of flowers and essential oil in J. grandiflorum. The cycocel up to 5,000ppm, in general retards the shoot length, stimulates more number of shoots, increases basal diameter of shoots, improves the quality of flowers and increases yield in J. auriculatum, J. flexile, J. multiflorum and J. sambac. Spraying of GA 3 (100ppm) in early vegetative stage improves vegetative growth and increases flowering in J. arborescens , a shy-flowering species.

Weeds cause obstruction in movement of flower pluckers and robs the nutrients applied to jasmine. Mulching is the best method to control weeds. After the first rains, the plant basins are mulched thoroughly which keeps most of the weeds under control. Mulching is followed by 2–3 hand weedings a year. To control both grassy and broad-leaved weeds for 2–3 months, post-emergent herbicide spraying of paraquat and glyphosate (2.0kg/ha) is very effective.

Irrigation

Moderate watering is good for jasmine. It is more essential in flowering season. During blossoming, the water should be applied twice a week if there is no rain and once a week during rest of the months. Soon after the cessation of flowering, watering is to be completely stopped until pruning and fertilizer application. With the advancement of cold weather, the plants begin to shed leaves. After pruning and manuring, watering is resumed. In J. sambac flowers, come in phases. Each phase of flowering lasts for 7 days during which the blossoms are put forth in profusion. There is an interval of about a month between one bloom and the commencement of the next. With the close of each flowering phase, watering is completely stopped for weeks together till the appearance of fresh flowering buds.
   
Harvesting & Postharvest management

Jasmine begins to flower second year onwards or sometimes even earlier but economic yields are obtained from the third year. It produces maximum flowers till 12–15 years. Then decline in the yield starts.Its flowers are harvested either in the evening or early in the morning when the buds are fully developed but still unopened. Pluckers collect flowers in a bag hanging from their shoulders. For extraction of jasmine concrete, the fully opened flowers should be harvested between 6 and 8 am.

The flowers should be handled carefully during harvesting and transit. After harvesting they are graded according to corolla tube length, bud size, shape and freshness. To increase the shelf-life, flower buds are soaked in aluminium sulphate (0.1%) or silver nitrate (0.01%) solutions for 2 hr and then covered with moist towel and kept under room temperature. Thus their shelf-life may be increased by 4 days. Packaging flowers of Jasminum sambac in 200 gauge polythene bags without ventilation maintains freshness, retains white colour and leads to extension of shelf-life for 3 days compared with one day in the control.
   
Physiological Disorders
However, no major physiological disorder has been reported in jasmine. Symptoms of copper deficiency have been observed in J. multiflorum and J. nitidum. Soil applications of Cu SO4 and copper chelates are equally effective to correct its deficiency.
TOP
 
Chromosome Number: 20
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Liliopsida
Order
:
Poales
Family
:
Poaceae
Genus
:
Cymbopogon
 

Java citronella is a large, perennial stemless, aromatic grass. Its oil from leaves has a strong characteristic lemonic odour extensively used in scenting of soaps, cosmetics, producing deodorants and mosquito repellent products. The oil is used as starting material to produce pure citronellol, citronellol, geraniol and related upstream high-value aroma chemicals used in perfumery industry. It is cultivated in 6,000–10,000ha land in high rainfall tracts of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Manipur. It is also cultivated on a small scale in Karnataka, coastal Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

Its plants have long, linear, densely tufted radical leaves and grow up to 2m in height under favourable soil and climatic conditions. It grows up to 1,000m elevation. It has shallow, fibrous root system. Being a short-day plant, it produces 1–2 long flowering shoots from the basal tuft with compact spikes, deep brown in colour on maturity and profusely set seeds. The flowering shoots are removed to maintain high productivity for 3–4 years in field.

Java citronella grows on fertile, organic, acidic, well-drained soils in tropical to subtropical conditions where rainfall and atmospheric humidity are high with warm days and plenty of sunshine. It avoids clayey soils, waterlogged areas or soil of pH above 8.5. The growth is equally luxuriant in red lateritic or alluvial soils provided with high input of inorganic fertilizers and copious irrigation. Common varieties are ‘Java Sel 2', ‘Jorlab 2'; ‘Manjusha' and ‘Mandakini'. The last 2 cultures produce 20–25% more yield in north India and the Himalayan foothills provided copious irrigation is given.

It is grown commercially by planting rooted slips only. One-year-old clumps provide 50–80 rooted slips, planted at 45cm × 40cm spacing during rainy season. It takes 20 days to establish plants in the soil. The crop remains for 3–4 years in field. Ten tonnes of farmyard manure and 20kg of Aldrin (10%)/ha is applied at land preparation. A basal dose of 40kg of N, P and K is recommended. The N fertilizer should be applied deeper in slopy lands in foothills. To overcome Zn deficiency, a dose of 25kg of ZnSO 4 is recommended at land preparation. Topdressing of 140–160kg of N (2 years' cycle) is recommended in the form of prilled urea or urea super granules or amending urea with citronella spent grass in 3–4 spilts. The crop needs 2 weedings before first cut and one after each harvet.

In dry season, irrigation is given at 10–15 days intervals. Since its growth is slow during first year, cowpea, greengram, blackgram, sorghum and fingermillet may profitably be grown as inter crops. Its first crop is ready 8–9 months after planting (5–6 months in Assam). It is cut 20cm above the ground at fully grown leaf stage when it has 0.5–0.8% oil. Subsequent harveting is done at 60–75 days intervals, except in cold weather. This harvested produce is wilted in the open sun for 4–6hr, chopped into small pieces and distilled in a steam distillation unit. Fresh produce possess 69–78% moisture, depending upon season of harvesting. A yield of 40–50 tonnes of the produce is received in a 2-year cycle which, in turn, yields 250–300kg of oil/ha is received depending upon locality, soil fertility, irrigation and management. The oil contains 85–90% total alcohols as geraniol and 35–45% aldehydes as citronellal respectively.

Sometimes, micronutrient deficiency is caused due to low content of Fe, Mn, Bo or S in the soil. This can be overcome in the early stage by spraying of their compound preparation 3–4 times at weekly interval. 

   
 
 
Quick links

Jackfruit
Jamun
Japanese mint
Jasmine
Java citronella
Agathi, Amaranth, Ash gourd , Beet root , Bitter gourd , Bottle gourd , Brinjal, Broccoli, Brussels sprout, Cabbage, Capsicum, Carrot, Cauliflower, Celery , Chilli, Cowpea, Cucumber , Curry leaf , Drumstick, French bean , Garlic, Kale, Knol-khol , Lablab bean , Lettuce, Muskmelon, Okra , Onion, Indian spinach , Parsley, Pea, Pointed gourd, Pumpkin, Radish, Ridge gourd , Round melon , Snake gourd, Spinach, Sponge gourd , Tomato, Turnip , Watermelon, Potato, Arrow root, Cassava, Coleus, Colocasia, Amorphophallus, Sweet potato , Xanthosoma, Yam bean , Yams, Mushroom, Annual flowers, Anthurium, Carnation, Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, Jasmine, Orchids, Rose, Asgand, Dill, Guggal, Black henbane , Isabgol, Khasi kateri , Liquorice, Opium poppy , Periwinkle, Pipali, Sarpagandha, Senna, Almond, Annonaceous fruits, Aonla, Apple , Apricot, Avocado, Bael, Banana, Ber, Bread fruit , Carambola , Cherry, Date palm , Durian, Egg fruit , Fig , Grape, Guava, Jackfruit, Jamun, Karonda, Kiwi fruit , Limes, Litchi, Loquat, Macadamia, Mahua, Mandarin orange , Mango, Mangosteen , Olive , Papaya, Passion fruit, Peach, Pear, Pecan, Persimmon, Phalsa , Pineapple, Plum, Pomegranate , Rambutan , Sapota, Strawberry, Citrus, Walnut , Ambrette, Chamomile, Davana , French jasmine, Indian basil , Java citronella , Kewada, Lemon grass, Japanese mint, Peppermint, Spearmint, Bergamot mint, Palmarosa oil grass , Patchouli, Rose geranium , Scented rose , Arecanut, Cashew, Cocoa, Coconut, Coffee, Oil palm , Palmyrah palm tree , Rubber, Tea, Betelvine, Black pepper , Cardamom, Large cardamom , Clove, Coriander, Cumin, Fennel, Fenugreek, Ginger, Nutmeg, Tamarind