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Chromosome Number: 19
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Capparales
Family
:
Brassicaceae
Genus
:
Brassica
 
Kale is a minor temperate vegetable. Introduced in India in nineteenth century, its cultivation on a commercial scale is very rare in India. It is grown on a limited scale in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Nilgiri hills in India. Its cultivation has picked up around metropolitan cities due to rising demand in hotels.
   
Climate and soil  

Kale is mostly cultivated in temperate climate but it can be grown in regions having cool winters. It is the hardiest crop and can withstand temperature as low as –10° to –15°C. Some varieties are less hardier which are grown in tropical regions too.
A well-drained, sandy loam soil is ideally-suited for its cultivation. However, it can thrive well on any good soils with proper drainage. It is more tolerant to salt.

 
Varieties
Its varieties are grouped into dwarf, medium-tall and tall having plant height below 40cm, 40–80cm and above 80cm respectively. Important varieties of dwarf type are Dwarf Green Curled Scotch, Dwarf Moss Curled (dwarf), Moss Curled and Hamburger Market (medium-tall). All the tall varieties generally shed their leaves earlier and are less productive. Karam Saag is one of the medium tall variety mostly grown in Jammu and Kashmir. Scotish and Siberian varieties are more suited for temperate regions.
   
Cultivation  

The field should be prepared like those of other minor cole crops. It is mostly propagated by seed. The seeds are sown in nursery beds to raise the seedlings. Direct field sowing is practised occasionally.
About 350–400g of seed is enough to raise seedlings for a hectare. August– October is sowing time in plains of northern India, whereas August–September is ideal sowing time in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Nilgiri hills. About 4–6 weeks old seedlings are transplanted in the field at a spacing of 45cm × 30cm. In late plantings, spacing can be reduced compared to early crop. For sturdy varieties the planting distance can be increased up to 70cm especially in rich soils.
Manuring and fertilization
A basal dose of 20–25 tonnes of farmyard manure is applied at the time of land preparation. A dose of 150kg N and 75kg each of P and K should be applied. The N is given in equal split doses at planting time, 30–40 days after planting and 15–20 days prior to first harvesting.
Irrigation
First irrigation is given immediately after transplanting. The subsequent irrigations are given at 15–20 days interval. However, it can stand drought reasonably well.
Interculture
Hoeing and weeding should be done regularly to keep the crop weed-free. Usually 2–3 hoeings and weedings are sufficient. Once the leaves cover the soil there is no need of hoeing. A shallow hoeing is necessary to avoid root injury.

   
Harvesting & Postharvest management

Its harvesting starts from November and continues till January-end. It should be done at appropriate vegetative stage of plant to obtain best quality harvest. The whole rosette of dwarf varieties is harvested at one time. The autumn-sown crop usually yields more, compared to early sown crop. On an average it yields 100–250q/ha.
The produce is sorted, small bundles are made and after packing in baskets it is sent to market. The green leaves cannot be stored for a long period under ordinary conditions hence refrigerated storage should be arranged. 

Nutritional Value
 
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Karonda is a hardy, evergreen, spiny and indigenous shrub. Widely grown in India, it is found wild in Bihar, West Bengal and south India. It is grown commonly as a hedge plant. Regular plantations of Karonda are very common in Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh. Fruits, sour and astringent in taste, are the richest source of iron containing good amount of vitamin C. Very useful to cure anaemia, its fruits have antiscorbutic properties also.
   
Climate and soil  
Since karonda is very hardy and drought tolerant, it thrives well throughout the tropical and subtropical climates. Heavy rainfall and waterlogged conditions are not desirable. It can be grown on a wide range of soils including saline and sodic soils.
 
Varieties

There are no well-established varieties of karonda. Cultivated types are classified on the basis of fruit colour—green-fruited, whitish fruits with pink blush and dark purple fruited. Maroon (a Narendra Selection) and nos. 13, 16, 12 and 3 have been identified as promising types. Natal plum, an African species ( Carissa grandiflora ), bearing large and dark red fruits is also grown in India.

   
Propagation
Karonda is commonly grown from seeds. Vegetative methods—air-layering and stem (hard wood) cuttings—are not very common. The fresh seeds are sown in nursery during August–September. One-year old seedlings are transplanted. Air-layering is very successful in karonda. It can be performed in the beginning of the monsoon. Rooted layers can be separated 3 months after layering.
   
Cultivation  

Planting

Pits of 45cm × 45cm × 45cm and 60cm × 60cm × 60cm size are dug and filled with organic manure and soil, in a 1:2 ratio. The planting distance for fence/hedge should be 1–1.5m, requiring 300–400 plants for planting the boundary of one hectare land. In intercropping with fruit trees and with regular planting, 2m distance both ways is required. About 500 plants/ha for intercropping and 1,800 plants/ha for regular planting are needed. Beginning of monsoon is ideal time of planting.

Training/pruning

Regular plantations of karonda can be trained on single or double stem. Therefore, additional unwanted shoots or laterals are removed from time-to-time to give the plant desired shape. Bearing plants normally do not require any pruning. Suckers arising from ground and diseased, dried twigs should be removed.

Manuring and fertilization

Karonda plants grown as protective hedge are hardly manured or fertilized. Manuring, however, is beneficial. Otherwise its plants slowly get exhausted after taking 2 crops and show symptoms of die back. Therefore, 10–15kg well-rotten farmyard manure or compost/plant should be applied before flowering.

Aftercare

Since karonda is a hardy plant, it requires very little care. Suckers appearing from the ground in regular plantation must be removed timely. Hoeing is essential for removing the weeds. Seasonal vegetables (chilli and cauliflower) or medicinal plants (matricaria) can be intercropped in first 2 years of regular plantation.

Irrigation

Water requirement of karonda is very low. Irrigation after planting and manuring is essential. Plantation once established does not need much water. However, if there is no rain during the development of fruit, one irrigation is given, which helps increase the fruit size.

   
Harvesting & Postharvest management
Plants raised with seeds start bearing in third year of its planting. The plants flower during March. The fruits ripen from July to September in north India. In arid conditions, flowering starts late and fruits ripen in post-monsoon period. Karonda requires 2–3 pickings. On an average a plant provides 3–5kg fruits. Karonda fruits mature 100–110 days after fruit set. At this stage fruits develop their natural colour. Fruits ripen after this stage, taking about 120 days (after fruit set) when they become soft and attain dark purple/maroon/red colour. There is no standard practice for grading and packing of fruits. Fruits after harvesting are kept in shade. Undesirable or blemished fruits are sorted out. Good fruits packed in baskets are marketed. Storage life of fruits depends upon the stage of harvest. Fruits harvested at maturity, can be stored for a week at room temperature, whereas fruits harvested at ripe stage are highly perishable and can be stored only for 2–3 days. Fruits can be preserved/stored for 6 months in SO2 solution (2,000ppm). Raw or mature fruits are most suitable for making an excellent quality pickle, jelly and candy. Ripe fruits can be processed into ready-to-serve squash and syrup. They can also be dried.
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Chromosome Number: 60
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Liliopsida
Order
:
Pandanales
Family
:
Pandanaceae
Genus
:
Pandanus
 
Kewada or screwpine is a densely branched large shrub, bearing thick, leathery, strong, spinecent leaves; characteristic aerial roots and large fragrant flowers. Kewada shrubs are found in natural strands all over the coastal tracts, river banks and water ways in India. It is cultivated as a hedge around paddy fields in Ganjam, Puri, Balasore and Cuttack districts of Orissa where distillation of kewada water and rooh (attar) is a flourishing small-scale industry. A part of the produce is exported to middle-east countries. Its plants can tolerate long periods of drought and seasonal flooding. They can effectively stabilize sand dunes and control soil erosion. The perfumery oil dissolved in water is distilled from its large showy fragrant male spadices (flowers). The kewada water is employed to flavour cuisine (particularly rice preparations), syrups, soft drinks, scenting of soaps, cosmetics, bouquets, hair oils, incense sticks and blending of tobacco (zerda) products. Besides, its leaves are used in making fancy mats, bags, hats and other cottage industry products. Kewada shrubs grow up to 6m tall and come in flower bearing in the fifth year, and continue to bear flowers till 40 or 50 years of age. Maximum flowering (50 flowers/annum) is produced between 10 and 25 years of age mainly during July–October (rainy season) and fewer numbers are given out later till January. The male spadix is 25–50cm long with numerous sub-sessile cylindrical spikes of 5–10cm length enclosed in a long white caudate and acuminate spathe. The female spadix has single female flower, 5cm across, which in turn produces large oblong to globose fruits (15–25cm across) turning yellow to red when ripe. There is fairly wide variation in its genetic material. Selection indices to identify superior flower yielding culture are subscribed but no commercial variety has been developed for raising a plantation for perfumery purposes. A plantation can be raised through planting of ground suckers (of non-flowering branches) during rainy season at 3–6m spacing. A 5-year-old plant attains 1.7m height and 50cm circumference of the main stem. The rooted plants fixed in a large pit filled with farmyard manure and good soil, can survive salinity and grow normally after it has struck root system. Warm and moist weather is conducive to good flower production, improving its oil quality. Periodic pruning of branches improves flower yield. A flower takes 15 days to mature, growing about 15cm across and weighing 100–200g each. Flower collection commences during May-end and may continue till January. The flowers are collected in early morning hours, plucked through a stick fitted with a sharp hook. The produce should be transported before 9am to collection centres as stale flowers deteriorate in odour quality for distillation purpose. These are packed in a big copper vessel connected to a receiver through a pipeline for passing of the distillate. The receiver is kept cool by submerging it in a water tank. Usually, 60 litres of water is filled in the vessel where 1,000 flowers are packed and the distillation takes 4–5hr over open furnance. For production of attar, sandal wood oil is placed in the receiver. Steam and oil vapours pass over this oil absorbing kewada aroma to produce its rooh (attar). Fresh batches of 1,000 flowers are added in a second batch to concentrate the attar. An oil:water concentrate obtained from distillation of 1,000 flowers is called hazara (1,000 flowers), and subsequent of 2,000 flowers as do-hazara roohs etc. The distillate water is recycled in the filling vessel to salvage all soluble aroma compounds of the oil. An efficient, small-scale steam-distillation unit has been devised, locally by Regional Reseacrh Laboratory, Bhubaneshwar, which saves on fuel and labour.
   
 
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Chromosome Number: 24
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Solanales
Family
:
Solanaceae
Genus
:
Solanum
 

Khasi kateri is a steroid-bearing perennial, tall, bush distributed all over Assam (Khasi, Jayanti and Naga hills), Sikkim and Manipur between 1,600–2,000m elevation. It is a naturalized plant in several other parts of India occurring at lower elevations. Its berry pulp is rich in solasodine alkaloid, which is a starting chemical for production of steroids. It is used in production of contraceptive pills, corticosteroids and sex hormones. It is cultivated in 3,000–5,000ha, mainly in Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. It is also cultivated in West Bengal, Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat on a small scale.

Khasi kateri is a large, semi-woody and hardy plant, growing 75–150cm tall. It is covered with straight and curved prickles over stem and foliage. The leaves are large, ovate and lobed, covered with hirsute and prickle spines on both surfaces. Flowers are white, 1–4 in group in axillary racemes, producing during most part of the year, except autumn. Fruit is a globose, green berry, 2.4cm across containing numerous, smooth, brown compressed seeds. The berries possess higher solasodine content when its green colour changes to pale on gradual ripening over the plants. The berries of cultivated crop yield 2.5–3.0% total solasodine content which mainly resides in pulp—60% around seeds and 40% below the pericarp.

Khasi kateri can be grown in plains and foothills easily, remaining for 6 months in field after transplanting. Although several improved varieties are grown in India, Arka Sanjeevani is best because it has no spines. Therefore, its plants grow at close spacing, increasing berry yield. Other popular varieties are BARC and Glaxo with a few prickles on stems and leaf lamina respectively.

Khasi kateri is easily grown in a wide range of soils and climatic conditions. However, well-drained, sandy loam soils of medium fertility in plains are most suited for its commercial cultivation. In central India, submarginal lands with irrigation are used for its commercial cultivation. It is sown in nursery in September or February when temperature is between 20°–25°C. Usually, 250g seed is enough to sow 4 nursery beds of 10m × 1.2m size which yield enough seedlings to plant one hectare crop. The seeds are treated with 0.1% Bavistin to protect from damping off disease. The nursery beds should be treated with 0.25% solution of copper oxychloride. The seeds are dibbled in furrows made at 10cm distance, 1.5cm deep in soil. They are covered with a thin layer of soil. The nursery beds are kept moist. The seeds germinate in 15 days and grow up to 10–15cm height, with 4–6 leaves in next 45 days. The seedlings are ready for field planting.

The field is prepared to a fine tilth. Add 2.5–4.5 tonnes of farmyard manure/ha together with 20kg of Aldrin (10%) at land preparation. Apply 20, 60 and 30kg of N, P and K basally, whereas 20kg of N/ha is given in rows 60 and 75 days after planting. The plants grow fast under moist, dry, warm atmosphere. Arka Sanjeevani grows well at 30cm × 45cm or 40cm × 40cm spacing, whereas for Glaxo and BARC the recommended spacing is 75cm × 75cm or 60cm × 60cm. Higher N fertilizers (120kg) give good response in growth and berry formation in marginal lands. The crop is given 2–3 weeding-cum-hoeings and 5 light irrigations. The plants produce flowers 3 months after sowing and fruiting occurs in next 2 months. Fruit set is high at temperature of 27°–31°C but it is reduced when temperature rises higher than 34°C, causing premature fall.

The berries are harvested when they attain yellowish colour. Two to 4 pickings are done at weekly interval. These fresh berries contain 70–75% water content and need to be dried in the sun very fast since they are prone to fungal infection. The drying of berries should be protected from rain water as solasodine is soluble in water and is lost. Drying through hot air blast at 50°C is preferred. The dry berry yield is 1.8–2 tonnes/ha and contains 2.5% solasodine. Usually khasi kateri is cultivated under contract buying with processing industries as there are a few buyers of berry crop and long storage of dry berry crop is not advisable. The solvent extracted and purified solasodine, its 16-DPA and its higher upstream formulations have market in export trade.

   
 
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Kiwi fruit is among the very few recent introductions which have surpassed in popularity due to its tremendous commercial potential in the sub-Himalayan region. A native to central China, it is being grown commercially in New Zealand, Italy, USA, China, Japan, Australia, France, Chile and Spain. In India, kiwi was first planted in the Lal Bagh Gardens at Bangalore as an ornamental tree. With extensive research and development support its commercial cultivation has been extended to the midhills of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Nilgiri hills.
   
Climate and soil  

Kiwi is a deciduous vine which can withstand wide climatic conditions. For high yield and quality fruits, it requires 700–800 chilling hours below 7°C to break its rest period in the winter otherwise the bud break may be delayed. It may be damaged by (i) autumn frost on the crop and the non-dormant plant from October-end to November-end, (ii) frost at the end of winter before and during the budburst, and (iii) spring frost after budburst. In summer, high temperature (>35°C) accompanied by high insulation and low humidity may cause scorching of leaves. Sun scald and heat stress are the main problems in its cultivation in lower areas.

In India, kiwi can successfully be grown at 800–1,500m above mean sea-level. A rainfall of about 150cm/year is sufficient. It should be well-distributed throughout the growing period. The plant does not withstand strong winds during the growing period because of its vigorous vegetative growth, large leaves and viny habit. Therefore, windy sites should be avoided or windbreaks should be established well before planting.

It can be grown on a wide range of soils but deep, rich, well-drained sandy- loam soils are ideal. A soil pH slightly less than 6.9 results in maximum yield but higher pH up to 7.3 affects adversely because of Mn deficiency. Heavy wet soils are not suitable as plants do not tolerate wet feet for long.

 
Varieties

Since kiwi is a dioecious plant, it bears pistillate and staminate flowers separately. Commercially-grown important pistillate and staminate cultivars are:

Abbott

This is an early-flowering and early-maturing cultivar. The oblong, medium-sized, fruits are covered with dense hairs. They are very sweet in taste with lower ascorbic acid content and medium titratable acidity.

Allison

Fruit resembles to that of Abbott, except that it is slightly broader in proportion to its length. The petals of its flowers are overlapping and crimped along with margins. It is an early-ripening, heavy-bearer and sweet in taste. Ascorbic acid and titratable acidity are on the lower side. This variety is most suited for Himachal Pradesh.

Bruno

This cultivar requires comparatively less chilling period. The fruits are tapering in shape towards the stem end. They are longest among all the cultivars. The fruit is dark brown having very dense, short and bristly hair, highest in ascorbic acid and titratable acidity. The bearing is very heavy.

Hayward

Most popular cultivar of the world, Hayward is comparatively shy-bearer with a tendency of biennial bearing. The fruit is broad and flat, being much wider in relation to length. It is superior in flavour with high sugar and ascorbic acid content. It requires comparatively more chilling hours.

Monty

It is a late-flowering cultivar but fruit maturity is not late. The fruits are oblong, resembling those of Abbott and Allison. Being a highly prolific-bearer cultivar, sometimes it needs hand thinning for obtaining good-sized fruits. The fruit is somewhat wider towards blossom-end with higher acidity and medium sugar content.

Tomuri

It is a good pollinizer for Hayward and Monty, the late-flowering kiwis. Flowers appear usually in groups of 5.

Allison

It is also used for pollinizing different cultivars.

   
Propagation

The propagation through cuttings is most rapid and suitable method of multiplication. Various types of stem cuttings—hard wood, semi-hardwood and soft wood—are quite successful, though the technique and success in rooting varies. The cuttings 0.5–1.0cm thick with relatively short internodes and 15–30cm long are ideal. Hard wood cuttings are prepared during the dormant season (January–February) from the previous year summer growth. Well-matured dormant shoots are used for cuttings having at least 3 healthy bold buds from middle of the shoot. Tips of the shoots should be avoided as they give a very low rate of rooting. The cuttings of the central and basal parts are ideal. Cuttings having more number of spurs should not be selected. The cuttings are treated with IBA (500ppm) for 10 seconds and set deeply in moist rooting medium. To prevent the cuttings from desiccation and rotting the top portion of the cuttings are waxed. A rooting medium consisting of farmyard manure: sand: leaf compost: soil in the ratio of 1:1:1:1 results in highest rooting in open conditions. The cuttings should be planted, 6–8cm apart in rows spaced at 12–15cm. The nursery bed should be thatched or shaded with shade net. Irrigations are given frequently. Adequate drainage should be provided to keep the nursery bed weed-free. As they become about 15.25cm high, their terminal growth is pinched off to divert the food and nutrients for root growth and development.

Hardwood cuttings can also be raised under intermittent mist in a mist propagation chamber or polythene house. The rooting media consisting of sand, farmyard manure, soil, saw-dust and coal in a 2:1:2:1:1 ratio gives a good success. The cuttings should be treated with a mixture of IBA (2,500ppm) and NAA (2,500ppm) solution for 20–30 seconds and misted for 2–3 minutes at every 15–20 minutes intervals for 5–6hr in a day.

Soft wood cuttings generally root easier and quicker than hard wood cuttings but they require more attention and sophisticated propagating structure (mist chamber). Semi-hard wood cutting with 3 buds and 0.5–1.0cm in thickness from the middle portion of the current season's growth are taken in July. A wound of about 1cm length is made on one side of the base just below the node. Lower leaf on the basal bud are removed while 2 leaves are retained but reduced to 20–50% by a circular cut maintaining the natural leaf shape. The cuttings are treated with IBA (4,000–5,000ppm) for 10 seconds and planted in the mist chamber having sand as the rooting media. Intermittent mist should be applied at 10-min. intervals. With this method 70–75% success is achieved.

Grafting

Kiwi plants are also propagated by grafting. Though it takes almost 2 years to develop a nursery plant through grafting or budding onto the seedling but this method is easiest and most economical. The kiwi plants can be raised through tongue grafting of kiwi seedlings during January–February.

Stratification

Freshly extracted kiwi seeds from ripe fruits need 10-week stratification in different layers of sand under field conditions. Under agroclimatic zones where winter temperature is sufficiently low to 15°C, kiwi seeds can be sown directly in the seed beds during the first fortnight of December. Seed beds should be mulched with grass, till the seeds start germination.

Germinating seeds and baby seedlings are very sensitive to sun-scald and direct sun. The young cotyledon leaves turn brown, developing damping off symptoms. They ultimately die. Thus on starting of seed germination, mulch should be removed and the seed bed should immediately be covered with hessian cloth (gunny bag) or with pruning wood thatch till 5–6 leaves appear on the seedlings.

The grafting should preferably be done during dormant season, January–February being ideal time. The scion of the thickness of rootstock should be selected and packed in sphagnum moss. It can be stored at 4°C in refrigerator if necessary. Of various methods of grafting, whip and tongue are ideal.

Budding

Seedlings become ready for budding normally at the end of first growing season when the stem diameter is about 6–8mm. Scion buds are obtained from the current season's growth. One or two buds are inserted on the main stem by T-budding method at 10cm above the ground level. Chip budding during mid-February results in bud take as high as 95%. The bud is firmly secured into position by tagging with a polythene tape. When the bud has taken, the top of the vine is cut above the union during the following dormant season. The protection to the young growing shoot from the bud is very important because it is very brittle and easily breaks.

   
Cultivation  

Planting

Land having very gentle slope is ideal for it. Steep land should be contoured into terraces for planting vines. If possible its rows should be oriented in a north-south direction to avail maximum sunlight. A thorough preparation of soil is essential for the successful establishment of its vineyard. Preparation of pits, mixing of farmyard manure and filling of pits should be completed by December.

Planting distance varies according to variety and system of training. By and large, T-bar and pergola are adopted for planting. In T-bar, a spacing of 4m from row-to-row and 5–6m from plant-to-plant is common, whereas in pergola system, a spacing of 6m from row-to-row should be maintained. January is ideal time for planting. The planting should be done at the same depth at which the plants were growing in the nursery. The soil should be firmly placed around the roots. The plants are pruned hard to about 30cm to encourage vigorous growth.

Chinese gooseberry is a dioecious plant, therefore, interplanting of male plants is essential for fruit production. Adequate pollination is essential for the development of good-sized fruit while poor pollination may limit productivity. For an effective pollination, to have a male clone blooming at the same time as the fruiting variety is grown, is essential. In India, only 2 male clones—Tomuri and Allison—are generally interplanted. To have the male plants evenly spread throughout the area, so that every female plant is in direct "sight" of a male, is also essential. Planting male and female plants in a 1:9 ratio is common. More number of male plants are beneficial although they should not occupy more than one-ninth of the total area. This can be achieved by cutting the male plants short as their leaders run along the wire, allowing the adjacent female to grow along into the space formed.

Kiwi plants are pollinated mainly by insects, honey bees being most important ones. A large population of honey bees is required in its orchard for a rapid and effective pollination. A small group of 3–4 colonies at the end of each block of 0.5–0.75ha for even dispersal of forager over the orchard is advised.

Training

Training of kiwi vine is very important, requiring constant attention. The main aim of training is to establish and maintain a well-formed framework of main branches and fruiting arms. Training also facilitates soil management, spraying and harvesting properly.

The supporting branches should be erected even before planting the vines or thereafter as early as possible. Three types of supporting structures (fences) are constructed.

A single wire fence is commonly adopted though another wire is sometimes provided by some growers and then structure takes the form of kniffin system. One 2.5mm thick tensile wire is strung on the top of pillars which are 1.8–2.0m high above the ground. The pillars are made of wood, concrete or iron and are erected at a distance of 6m from each other in a row. The wire tension at installation should not be over-strained otherwise wire can break at knot due to crop load.

A cross arm (1.5m) on the pole also carries two outrigger wires. This training is known as T-bar or overhead trellis/telephone system. The laterals arising from the main branch are trained on canopy of 3 wires.

A flat topped network or crisscross wires is prepared to train vines on pergola or bower system. The system is costly and difficult to manage but gives higher yield.

T-bar

A strongly growing shoot is selected as a main trunk to carry the vine up to the wire. The trunk is staked to provide support and tied at frequent intervals, so that it does not twist around and grows straight. When the vine attains a height of 2m and reaches near the wire, one permanent leader can be allowed to grow out in each direction along with centre wire. To achieve this, the leader can be trained one way along the wire and suitably placed shoot can be trained in opposite direction as the second leader. Alternately, the initial shoot can be cut just below the wire to force the production of 2 leader growths which can be trained as leaders along the wire.

From the permanent leaders, a system of temporary fruiting arms 25–40cm apart is developed, at right angle along both sides of each leader. These arms are tied down to the outrigger wires to hold them in position taking care not to break them out at their bases.

The leader should not be allowed to twist tightly around the wire or a restriction of sap flow in future years could result and weaken the vine beyond constriction.

Using substantial shoots for training as leader hasten full development of fruiting arms and the time of full production. Growth may be relatively slow during first season but within 3–4 years the fence should be furnished with strong leaders and fruiting arms in each direction.

Pergola

Training of vines over a pergola is similar to that of T-bar fence. The vines are grown as straight, single trunk until they reach a height of 2m near the top of the structure. A single, strong, permanent leader is then allowed to grow in each direction along the main wire.

To form the canopy of the pergola, a system of fruiting arm is developed from the leaders at right angle to the wire. Fruiting arms can be retained longer on pergolas and may be more permanent than on T-bar. On more permanent fruiting arms, temporary fruiting laterals are allowed to develop. It usually takes up to 7 years for a pergola to become fully furnished with vine growth.

Pruning

Knowledge of growth and fruiting habit of kiwi vine is essential for its pruning. The vine should grow 2–4m every year which may become over-crowded and unmanageable if not controlled by both summer and winter pruning. The fruits develop only on current season's growth, arising from the buds developed in the previous year. Only basal 3–6 buds of the current season's growth are productive. The shoots developed on older wood by heading back do not fruit normally in the first season. Good quality fruits develop on the exposed vines. A shoot dies gradually if it is pruned just beyond the fruiting bud.

Thus pruning in kiwi should be carried out in such a way that the fruiting areas are available every year requiring the wood to be young. This is achieved by following a 3–4 year lateral replacement system which becomes a pruning cycle. In the beginning, a lateral arising from main rod is cut back in winter to provide enough space for 4–5 fruiting shoots at 4–5 bud interval between 2 such shoots. The strong uprights or the shoots arising at undesirable points are pruned in spring when they have not grown too long. This is more applicable to Hayward variety, in which the shoots of only medium vigour bear fruits. In others, vigorous shoots can be pulled back to horizontal position to convert them into fruiting wood. Thus the summer pruning constitutes in shortening back of fruiting arms, thinning out of crisscross and shading shoots. The secret of successful summer pruning is in the selection and encouragement of correct laterals to bear fruits in the next year and expose the vine to the sun.

In dormant pruning, the fruiting lateral is cut back to 2 vegetative buds beyond the last fruit. In the second year, these vegetative buds produce the fruiting shoots which are pruned again. The arms on the lateral shoots and allowed to fruit during third or fourth year. After this, the laterals are removed from the main branch and other laterals are selected and pruned accordingly so that the balance between vegetative and reproductive growth is maintained for the continuity in fruit production.

The fruiting laterals which have lost vigour or become over-crowded are removed to encourage the development of new laterals. Since the fruiting arm is removed after the third year it implies that about one-third of the total fruiting arms are cut away from the vine each year. These are cut back to permanent leaders. Dormant pruning must be completed by mid-February each year.

Manuring and fertilization

The quantity of fertilizer varies with soil fertility, age of vine and fruit production. The nutrient removal by kiwi plants is much higher because of more yield, and removal of summer and winter pruning. Thus N, P and K should be applied on yearly-basis, while the other elements on requirement-basis. Generally, a basal dose of 20kg farmyard manure, 0.5kg NPK mixture containing 15% N is applied each year. After 5 years of age, 850–900g N, 500–600g P, 800–900g K and farmyard manure should be applied every year.

Kiwi requires high Cl because its deficiency adversely affects the growth of shoot and roots. In contrast, excess levels of B and Na are harmful. The N fertilizer should be applied in 2 equal doses, half to two-thirds in January–February and the rest after fruit set in April–May. In young vines the fertilizer is mixed in the soil within the periphery of the vine, and for the matured vine it is broadcast evenly over the entire soil surface. Under moisture-deficient conditions, the fertilizer application may be harmful to the plant.

Aftercare

Permanent soil culture predominantly with clover and clean basin is the best system of soil management. In view of the danger of soil erosion in hilly areas, sod culture is more justified. The natural weed cover provides good sod and helps conserve soil and organic matter. The clover sod is most common in New Zealand. It can be maintained in our conditions also. The sod or the natural weed cover should be regularly mowed and can be used as a mulch (10cm thick) during summers. Weedicides can also be used. However, kiwi fruit is susceptible to several residual herbicides—Bromocil, Terbacil, Chlorthiamid and Dichlobenit. Green manuring and intercropping with vegetables and leguminous crops can be practised during initial 5 years of plantation.

Irrigation

Kiwi plants require much water due to their vigorous vegetative growth, leaf size, vine habit and high humidity in their natural habitat. Therefore, it cannot be successfully grown in rainfed areas. Moisture stress during summer adversely affects fruit size and crop returns, therefore summer irrigation is essential to cope up with growing period of fruit. Irrigation is also needed during September and October when the fruit is in initial stage of growing and development. Irrigation at 10–15 days interval is quite satisfactory for good economic returns.

   
Harvesting & Postharvest management

It takes 4–5 years for a kiwi vine to start bearing worthwhile fruits and 7–8 years for commercial production. The harvesting period varies from area-to-area. The fruits mature earlier at lower altitude and later at higher altitudes because of variation in temperature. Under Solan conditions, the fruits can be harvested from October-end to third week of November depending upon cultivars, whereas under Shimla condition, the fruits are harvested from last week of November to December. Kiwi fruits having 6.2% TSS are ideal for harvesting. But delay in harvesting deteriorates their storability. They are easily harvested by snapping off the fruit at the abscission layer at the base of the stalk. At least 2 pickings are made. Larger-sized berries should be harvested first while smaller ones should be allowed to increase in size and improve in quality. After harvesting, the fruits are rubbed with a coarse cloth to remove stiff hairs found on their surface. Hard fruits are transported to the market. Subsequently, they lose their firmness in 2 weeks at room temperature and become edible. On an average, kiwi yield varies from 50 to 100kg fruits/vine. Vines on trellis produce about 25 tonnes/ha after 7 years.

Kiwi fruits have an excellent keeping quality. The fruits can be kept in a good condition in a cool place without refrigeration up to 8 weeks. It can be kept for 4–6 months in a cool storage at –0.6° to 0°C.

In India, there are no package and grading standards for kiwi. However, grading should be done on the basis of weight. In international market, fruit weight of 72g is the minimum for export while 100g is the preferred weight. In India the fruits weighting 70g and above are graded as ‘A'-grade fruits and between 40 and 70g are graded ‘B'-grade fruits.

Since there is no standard package for kiwi fruits, card-board boxes of 3–4kg capacity are generally used for packing. Polythene liners in storage cases are very effective in maintaining high humidity and can be used to maintain fruits in good condition for a longer period. 

Nutritional Value
 
TOP
 
Chromosome Number: 18
Taxonomic Classification
Class
:
Magnoliopsida
Order
:
Capparales
Family
:
Brassicaceae
Genus
:
Brassica
 
Knol-khol is known by many names in India. It is popular in Kashmir, West Bengal, Maharashtra, Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and some parts of south India, but it is not cultivated commercially. It is characterized by the formation of knob (tuber) which arises from a thickening of the stem tissue above the cotyledons. The fleshy turnip-like enlargement of the stem develops entirely above the ground. This knob is harvested for human consumption as raw or cooked vegetable, though in some parts, young leaves are also used.
   
Climate and soil  

Knol-khol, thrives best in a relatively cool, moist climate. In temperate regions, the early varieties are sensitive to early bolting but under subtropical conditions, this problem is not much since the vernalization effect of low night temperature is counteracted by high temperatures during the day with the result that mean temperature hardly goes below 10°C. The high temperature after planting delays the bolting of plants that have been vernalized on the seed bed. It grows well with a monthly average temperature of 15°–20°C, maximum and minimum average being 24°C and 4.5°C. In late varieties, low temperature does not have stimulating effect on bolting in early stages. It is vernalized in the later stages only as other biennial cole crops when the plant has made some growth. It can withstand extreme cold and frost better than other cool season crops.
Varieties that are susceptible to bolting lack a juvenile phase and become generative without producing knobs if exposed after germination to low temperature. When the low temperature occurs at the knob formation stage, the round and flat round varieties produce long oval-shaped knobs. The low temperature or frost conditions sometimes develop the anthocyanin pigments on knobs or plant parts. These pigments are intensified, if there is lack of N and P in soil, deteriorating the quality of knobs, especially of green types.
Knol-khol can be grown on all types of soils. A soil rich in manures and fertilizers produces excellent knobs. Sandy loam is ideal for an early crop and clay or silt loam for higher yield and late crop. It does not grow well in highly acidic soil. The optimum pH is 5.5–6.8.

 
Varieties

Some of the promising varieties available in India are Sutton's Earliest Purple (Sutton), Golith White (Sadashiv), Early White Vienna, King of the Market and Early Purple Vienna (Verma, Pocha). Although research stations and some private seed companies are engaged in testing and maintenance of varieties, no serious attempt has been made for the improvement of the crop as the available introductions are well-suited to our conditions. The recommended varieties are:
King of North
It has a plant height of 20–30cm, foliage is dark green, knob flattish-round, leaf sheath large and well-spread over the knob. It matures 60–65 days after transplanting.
In Europe, Wiesmoor Forcing White and Gaugels Forcing White are resistant to bolting and mature 30–45 days after planting. These are early varieties characterized by the horizontal position of the lower leaves. The late varieties mature 70–100 days after planting. The earliest variety in this group is Purple Speck while Goliath, is late.
Large Green
It has green, round, large-sized knobs with small tops. The knobs are tender, delicately flavoured with white flesh. It is ready for harvesting in 76 days with an average yield potential of 225–250q/ha. It has been recommended for mid and high hills of the western Himalayas.
Purple Vienna
This is about one week late than White Vienna. Knobs are purplish-blue with greenish-white flesh. It has purple leaves. It requires 55–65 days for knob formation with slightly better yield potential than White Vienna.
White Vienna
This is an early variety with globular, light green, smooth, tender, medium-sized knobs having creamy-white tender flesh with delicate flavour. Its plants are dwarf, leaves and stems are medium green. It has a yield potential of 150–200q/ha. It matures 55–65 days after transplanting. Early White Vienna has dwarf plants, short tops and globular round knobs. It takes 50–60 days for knob formation.

   
Cultivation  

Knol-khol is usually propagated by seed, the seed rate being 1–1.5kg/ha. Seed should be given a hot water treatment (50°C) for half an hour against black rot and Apron 35 @ 2g/kg seed against downy mildew before sowing in disease-prone areas. The seedlings are raised in the nursery beds. About 4–6 weeks old seedlings are ready for transplanting.
Generally, 60cm wide and 2.5m long nursery beds are prepared. For 1m2 nursery 100g of fertilizer mixture containing 15g each N, P and K and 2.5–4kg farmyard manure mixed well in soil and raised nursery bed must be prepared with 30cm channel along with the nursery. On light and drought sensitive soils, sunken nursery beds are preferred. Acidic soils should be limed. For minimizing the seedling damage, the nursery beds should be treated with formalin (40% formaldehyde diluted in 5–6 parts of water). Soil is saturated with this solution, requiring 5 litres/m2. Fumes are then confined by covering nursery beds with burlap or canvas or polythene for 2 days and then the soil is aerated well for at least 4 days before sowing. This treatment can be replaced by the use of Captan (0.3%) for soil drenching. Seeds are sown in rows at a distance of 5–6cm for ease in manual hoeing, weeding and thinning. In too close spacing, the seedlings are liable to be attacked by damping off disease and become lanky. Proper spacing results in stocky and vigorous seedlings. A depth of 1.5–2cm is optimum since deeper sowing delays the germination. The nursery bed is covered with grass to conserve moisture for uniform germination. It is watered as and when required with watering can. The mulch is removed just before the seed germination to control damping off, drenching with Dithane M-45 (0.2%) is recommended. Nitrogenous fertilizer (urea) may be added in the spray when the seedlings growth is poor. However, excessive N results in tender and lanky plants that show poor establishment after transplanting. Seedlings are hardened in the nursery by restricting the water supply for about a week before transplanting in the field to enable them to withstand the shock of transplanting.
Planting
In the plains of north India, planting may be done in September, while in the milder winter regions, October is best time for planting. In the hills of northern India, seeds are sown from March–April to August. About 5–6 week old seedlings are transplanted for summer and autumn crops. The growing of nursery in March– April needs protection from cold and frost for which low cost polyhouses may be used.
Preparation of land is done by 2–3 ploughings, firstly with soil turning plough and after ploughings with ordinary plough/tiller or disc harrow to get fine tilth. The beds and channels are prepared to facilitate irrigation. Transplanting of seedlings is done in the evening and/or on cloudy days. The soil around the plant should be well pressed to establish contact with the roots. This process should be followed by light irrigation. The dead plants should be replaced and gaps be filled 5–6 days after transplanting. The transplanting is done at a closer spacing of 25cm × 25cm, 25cm × 30cm, 25cm × 40cm or 30cm × 45cm depending on climatic conditions and fertility of the soil. The yield is more in close spacing but the size of knobs is reduced. The early varieties may be planted at closer spacing while the late ones require wider spacing.
Manuring and fertilization
Knol-khol responds well to manuring, as it is a heavy feeder. A yield of 20 tonnes/ha removes about 100kg N, 85kg P and 170kg K. Excess of N may cause abundant leafy growth and a delayed crop. Split application of N is more beneficial. Half of N along with full quantity of P and K are applied at the time of transplanting. The remaining half N is applied in 2 equal split doses, 3 weeks after transplanting and the other at the knob development stage. The farmyard manure is added to soil 4–6 weeks before transplanting. Optimum N and K doses are necessary to get good flavoured knobs.
The deficiency of B, Mo and N may induce physiological disorders such as browning, whiptail and buttoning. Foliar application of urea (1–2%) to correct the N deficiency is useful and economical. Multiplex (0.2–0.3%) can be added in the spray to correct the general micronutrient deficiencies. However, to correct deficiency alone, 10–15kg/ha of borax as soil application or 2 sprays of 0.3% borax on the crop are beneficial. In highly acidic soils, Mo deficiency can be overcome by liming or soil application of ammonium molybdate @ 200–300g/ha at aconcentration of 0.01–0.1%.
Aftercare
Steady growth is of utmost importance. Any check in the growth causes knobs to be fibrous and woody. On the other hand, too rapid growth after slow initial growth may result in cracking knobs though a lot of varietal variation exists. The knobs may become elongated in close spacing due to lack of light as in knobs growing in the shade. The production of elongated knobs may also be induced by high temperature and excess of N. Cracking of knobs also occurs if the long-dry spell is followed by moist conditions or irrigation, because of increased root pressure.
The intercultural operations are performed mainly to check the weed growth to make the soil loose and to maintain proper moisture condition. Since its root system is shallow, hoeing is done to keep the crop weed-free. Presence of weeds in the early stages reduces the yield due to poor growth of the plants. Timely hoeings help check the weed population. As soon as the weeds start appearing, shallow hoeing should be done. Once the weeds are well-established, their removal disturbs the root system of plants resulting in weak growth. No sooner the soil is covered with foliage, hoeing is stopped. Hoeing during the knob development stage is discouraged and weeds if any removed by hand.
Treflan (Trifluralin @ 0.5 litre/ha) and Semeron (Desmetrayne @ 1kg/ha) applied before transplanting control both monocot and dicot weeds. Use of black polythene mulch for controlling weeds can also be made. Recently the effectiveness of Stomp (Pendimethalin @ 1–2kg/ha) in controlling weeds has been recommended. Practice of a weedicide application supplemented with 1 or 2 hand hoeings is useful and economical.
Irrigation
Knol-khol requires a continuous supply of moisture for uniform growth and development of knobs. First irrigation is done immediately after transplanting and thereafter irrigation is done when needed, depending on soil and weather conditions. Irrigations at 15 days interval is adequate. Heavy irrigation should be avoided. Irrigation should be applied when the moisture content of the soil has dropped below 50% of field capacity. At the time of maturity of knobs, irrigation is detrimental.

   
Harvesting & Postharvest management
The knobs are harvested by cutting the stem just below it by a sharp knife or sickle before they are fully grown. After that they become tough and woody. The demand is fairly high for knobs of smaller size of about 5–8cm diameter. In preparing the produce for the market, the root portion is removed and the plants are tied in bunches along with the tender leaves. It is also marketed after removing both leaves and roots.The knobs of early varieties may have an average weight of 200–250g while those of late ones weigh up to 1kg. Generally, the yield may vary from 12–30t/ha.
 
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